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Microsoft SQL Server 2019 Always Encrypted nShield HSM Integration Guide
Always Encrypted is a feature in Windows SQL Server 2019 designed to protect sensitive data both at rest and in flight between an on-premises client application server and Azure or SQL Server database(s). Data protected by Always Encrypted remains in an encrypted state until it has reached the on–premises client application server, this effectively mitigates man in the middle attacks and provides assurances against unauthorized activity from rogue DBAs or admins with access to Azure/SQL server Databases. Always Encrypted was designed to be used in conjunction with Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) however; TDE is NOT a requisite for implementing Always Encrypted.